The Development of Fiscal Social Accounting Matrix for Indonesia

Hidayat Amir, Ferry Irawan, Djoni Hartono, Anda Nugroho

The Social Accounting Matrix (SAM), is a matrix to represent the transaction in a socio-economic system. It provides a comprehensive description of an economy with emphasis on social and distributive aspects. It describes the economic flows: income generation by production activities, income distribution, and the redistribution between economic agents. The SAM framework provides a useful tool for various policy analysis such as income distribution analysis and incidence studies. BPS-Statistics Indonesia develops SAM as a complementary of Input-Output Table in every five year. However, the standard SAM only offers a limited set of fiscal instruments. Fiscal policy instruments are important tools in policy analysis for government institutions, namely Fiscal Policy Agency (Badan Kebijakan Fiskal /BKF). BKF is a unit within the Indonesian Ministry of Finance that has the responsibility in the fiscal policy formulation. The purpose of this study is to develop the Fiscal SAM (FiSAM) for the year of 2008. The FiSAM features a more detail fiscal instrument of SAM framework. It captures the government’s indirect tax evenue and government’s transfer. The government’s indirect tax is disaggregated into more detail categories: value added taxes (VAT), sales taxes for luxury items, excises, import tax, property tax, stamp duty, and others (including local taxes). While the government’s transfer is disaggregated into: subsidy for poor students, food subsidy for the poor, conditional cash transfer, and other government’s transfer. With these extensions, the FiSAM has more capability to capture a wide range analysis of fiscal policies more precisely. The FiSAM may also serves as data for further development of Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models.
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